That Blue Square Thing - Geography Revision

Unit 9 Markscheme - Development

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Use this markscheme to check your own answers. If you're unsure then ask a teacher to give you a hand. With practice you should be able to mark your own work.

You might find it useful to look at the Standard GCSE Markscheme.

This explains a little more about level marked questions and gives an example. As examiners we're always interested to see useful case studies used in longer answers - this will often gain marks because it helps to explain the points you're making.

a) Compare the employment structure of the UK with that of Niger

Make sure that you compare rather than just quote figures. Niger has a lot more primary employment and a lot less secondary and tertiary. Some figures are useful to help add to this - especially if a question like ths is worth 4 marks

b) Suggest why there are differences between the employment structure of the UK and that of Niger

You need reasons which need to be developed for Level 2. So two good points are fine.

People in the UK are richer so they can afford more services so the tertiary is higher; Niger is too poor to develop factories - or too much in debt or lacks the resources to develop the infrastructure needed. In Niger most people need to grow their own crops so they need a lot more primary employment - and they have a lot less machines so people are needed to do the work by hand...

c) Choose one of the approaches listed below to help poorer countries develop:
1. we should encourage transnational companies to come to our country
2. we should encourage the use of more appropriate technology
3. we should encourage tourism
4. we want fair trade with MEDCs
5. MEDCs should give us more aid
Suggest ways in which the method you have chosen could help an LEDC develop it’s economy. Use examples from LEDCs that you have studied

This is a hard question - but it shows you that you need to know a little bit about each method of development.

Level 1: simple ideas without very much development - e.g. "Tourism brings in money making the country richer"

Level 2: some development of ideas - e.g. "TNCs train people and help to develop the infrastructure o fthe country as they need roads, airports and power lines to run their factories. This heps the country attract other industries"

Level 3: clear development with use of detailed case studies - e.g. "Fair trade schemes like Cafe Direct's schemes in Costa Rica mean that more money is kept in the country. This means that farmers are richer so they can afford to buy more products and services. This helps to develop the secondary and tertiary industries in the country which make more money and create more jobs leading to the multiplier effect"

d) Suggest one disadvantage that receiving foreign aid may create for LEDCs

Probably the best answer would be to talk about becoming dependent on aid. It can also lead to countries having to stay friendly with the countries the aid comes from which might not be in their interests. A lot of aid is tied - so they are given money which has to spent on tractors from Coventry for example. This might not be the best thing to do with the aid - so it might not always be very useful.

e) What does GNP measure?

Average income per person per year

f) Explain the problems with using GNP to measure the development status of a country.

You should look at ideas like it being an average and it not representing the quality of life of people and only being one indicator. At the top end of the marks you might want to use some examples of what you mean or places.

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